FHWA Issues Solicitation for INVEST Implementation Projects, Federal Highway Administration (1-13-13). FHWA is seeking letters of interest from state departments of transportation, metropolitan planning organizations, federal lands, and local governments to implement its Infrastructure Voluntary Evaluation Sustainability Tool (INVEST 1.0). Launched in October 2012, INVEST 1.0 is a web-based collection of voluntary best practices designed to help transportation agencies incorporate sustainable practices into their projects, plans, and programs. FWHA is seeking to partner with transportation agencies to gather lessons learned on implementing INVEST that can be shared with other agencies. Funding for multiple awards is anticipated at $25,000 to $150,000 to be awarded on a rolling basis; letters of interest are due Feb. 15 for the first round of projects planned for March 2013.
FHWA Infrastructure Voluntary Evaluation Sustainability Tool (INVEST), Federal Highway Administration (Oct. 2012). This online tool allows transportation agencies and their partners to evaluate and score sustainable elements of their projects and programs based on pre-established criteria. Points can be earned for a range of sustainable criteria, allowing users to rate projects or programs with a bronze, silver, gold, or platinum score. The tool includes three “modules” under which users can self-evaluate the entire life cycle of transportation services: system planning, project development, and operations and maintenance. Each module is based on a separate set of criteria and can be evaluated separately. The site includes background, case studies, and an online workspace for collaboration.
Reference Sourcebook for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Transportation Sources, Federal Highway Administration (Feb. 2012). This sourcebook provides a review of published information that addresses various climate change mitigation techniques. The document is intended to be a reference for state departments of transportation and metropolitan planning organizations to inform decisions on what strategies to pursue to mitigate the effects of climate change. The document reviews strategies in connection with land use, transportation demand, system management, and vehicle improvements.
Transportation's Role in Reducing U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions, U.S. DOT (April 2010). This the study aims to "objectively examine numerous proposed strategies and assess their potential to reduce transportation GHG emissions." The report evaluates a range of strategies for reducing greenhouse gases from transportation including: introducing low-carbon fuels; increasing vehicle fuel economy; improving transportation system efficiency; aligning transportation planning and investments to achieve GHG reduction objectives; and pricing carbon. The report also discusses various policy options for implementing these strategies.
GAO Issues Assessment of Potential Climate Engineering Technologies, Government Accountability Office (Aug. 25, 2011). This report provides an assessment of two proposed technologies to engineer the climate to manage potential catastrophic risks from climate change: carbon dioxide removal (CDR) and solar radiation management (SRM). CDR would involve reducing the atmospheric concentration of CO2 by capturing and storing it underground, while SRM would employ reflective materials to scatter or reflect sunlight back into space. The report finds that climate engineering technologies are immature but that experts and the public support research on their development.
IPCC Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report: Chapter 5 Transport and its Infrastructure (2007). This IPCC report identifies mitigation technologies and strategies directed at infrastructure including road, rail, aviation, and shipping as well as their potential for emissions reductions and potential costs.
Controlling Greenhouse Gas Emissions Generated by the Transport Sector in Europe and Central Asia: Policy Options, World Bank (February 2013). The report reviews recent trends in transport and greenhouse gas emission trends in Europe and Central Asia through comparison of trends in the 15 European Union member states 10 years ago and the current 27 member states.
IRF Bulletin on Environment and Climate Change, Volume 2, International Road Federation (March 2012). This publication is the second in a two-volume series on environmental and climate change issues that affect global road infrastructure. Volume 1, published in December 2011, covered topics including policy and regulatory measures, assessing carbon dioxide emissions, technology advancements, and adapting to climate change. Volume 2 addresses the topics of sustainability and carbon assessment, life cycle analysis, technology, and adapting to climate change.
Developments in Energy Use for Transport in 27 European Union Countries Through 2030, Burkhard Schade and Tobias Wiesenthal (2011). This article discusses transportation emissions and energy use in the European Union under scenarios developed through 2030. Various models were run on the scenarios to develop projected greenhouse gas emissions and fuel demand. The article is published in the TRB Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2252 Energy and Global Climate Change 2011.
Report Sets Baseline Indicators for Assessing Transport Sector’s Progress Towards European Environmental Targets, European Environment Agency (Nov. 10, 2011). This report establishes a core set of indicators to annually assess the progress of the European transport sector in reducing environmental impacts over the coming decade, including meeting new greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets established by the European Commission. The Transport and Environment Reporting Mechanism Core Set of Indicators (TERM-CSI) cover issues including energy consumption, emissions, transport demand, noise, price developments, and fleet monitoring.
Greenhouse Gas Emission Trends and Projections in Europe 2011, European Environment Agency (Oct. 7, 2011). The European Environment Agency has issued its annual report on the progress of European Union and European Economic Area states toward greenhouse gas targets under the Kyoto Protocol. The report also assesses the progress of individual states on reaching their burden-sharing targets. The report states that the 15 pre-2004 member states of the EU are on track as a whole to achieve their Kyoto targets but that various EEA states will fall short on either their burden-sharing or Kyoto targets. The report covers 2008 through 2010.
Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Europe, European Environment Agency (Oct. 7, 2011). The European Environment Agency has issued a report on the greenhouse gas emission trends from 1990 to 2008. The report states that overall GHG emissions decreased over the time period, with levels in 2008 being 11.1 percent below 1990 levels. Economic conditions accounted for most of the reductions, but EU policies and the laws of member states also contributed to reductions. The report covers European Union nations as well as European Economic Area (EEA) member countries and candidate countries as far as data were available.
Reports Now Available on Data and Capacity Needs for Transportation Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs), Center for Clean Air Policy (November 2010). CCAP's Transportation and Climate Change Program has released two new reports that complete its series on Data and Capacity Needs for Transportation NAMAs. NAMAs are defined as actions voluntarily proposed by developing countries that significantly reduce emissions below business-as-usual levels. The series of three reports assess data availability, data selection, and capacity building needs for developing, implementing, and evaluating successful transportation NAMAs.
Low Carbon Transport: A Greener Future, U.K. Department of Transport (July 2009). This report and the accompanying Impact Assessment sets forth a strategy that is intended to enable the UK to meet the requirements of the carbon budgets set under the Climate Change Act 2008. The impact assessment provides a high level discussion of costs, benefits, and other impacts of the Carbon Reduction Strategy between 2008 and 2022.
Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change, Sir Nicholas Stern (October 2006). Sir Nicholas Stern, former Chief Economist for the World Bank, was commissioned by the government of Great Britain to prepare a report on the effects of climate change on the global economy. The report, known as the Stern Review, was published in October 2006. The key conclusion of the report is that "the benefits of early action on climate change outweigh the costs."
Transport and Climate Change, Commission for Integrated Transport (2007). The UK Government set a 60% reduction target by 2050 for the carbon emissions that are widely accepted as one of the key causes of climate change. Much of the responsibility for hitting this target rests on the UK transport sector, as one of the prime and growing causes of carbon emissions in the UK today. In its role as a key advisory body to Government on transport, the Commission for Integrated Transport (CfIT) put together a report in order to (1) identify areas of transport in which carbon emissions could most cost-effectively be targeted; (2) look at practical and deliverable ways of targeting those areas of transport mode and behavior; and (3) evaluate those measures in terms of affordability, acceptability, fairness and deliverability, to recommend a package of readily implementable solutions.
Integrating Sustainable Transport Measures into the Clean Development Mechanism, Transport Reviews, Vol. 29 No. 1: (2009). While the number of projects under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is expanding rapidly, there currently are relatively few transport projects in the global CDM portfolio. This article examines existing CDM transport projects and explores whether sectoral approaches to the CDM may provide a better framework for transport than the current project-based CDM.
Success Stories within the Road Transport Sector on Reducing GHG Emissions and Producing Ancillary Benefits, European Environmental Agency (Feb. 2008). Contains 6 case studies of European programs to reduce GHG - ecodriving, teleconferencing, congestion pricing, freight construction consolidation center, speed management, and an environmental center.
Transport and Environment: Review of CO2 Abatement Policies for the Transport Sector, European Conference of Ministers of Transport (June 2006). This report reviews the progress the European Conference of Ministers of Transport (ECMT) and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries have made in reducing transport sector CO2 emissions and makes recommendations for the focus of future policies.
Flexing the Link Between Transport and Greenhouse Gas Emissions - A Path for the World Bank, International Energy Agency (June 2000). This report provides an overview of energy use and CO2 emissions as they relate to transportation and discusses the challenges in achieving GHG emission reductions in the transportation sector. The study also discusses tools and methods to achieve emissions reductions, including limitations in current analytical tools and data, and provides a framework for an analytical methodology based on transportation activity, modal share, energy intensities, and fuel mix (ASIF).
Synthesis of Climate Change and Transportation Research Efforts at State DOTs, State Universities, and Federal Level (NCHRP 25-25, Task 76), National Cooperative Highway Research Program (July 2011). The report describes a wide range of research underway on transportation and climate change by state DOTs, federal agencies, and state universities, including mitigation as well as climate change adaptation. It is based on a literature review and survey of state DOTs and follow-up contacts with practitioners.
Evaluate the Interactions between Transportation-Related Particulate Matter, Ozone, Air Toxics, Climate Change, and Other Air-Pollutant Control Strategies, NCHRP 25-25, Task 59 (July 2010). The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a variety of transportation emission control strategies at reducing emissions of various pollutants are assessed in this report produced under the National Cooperative Highway Research Program. The study looked at pollutants including ozone precursors, particulate matter (PM), air toxics, and greenhouse gases (GHG); and identified which strategies may reduce some pollutants while increasing others. Researchers evaluated 34 control strategies in three categories – transportation demand management, transportation systems management, and vehicle and fuel technology. The study also included a review of pollutant weighting systems used in evaluating projects across multiple pollutants; a survey of how transportation and air quality agencies have evaluated cost-effectiveness, considering multiple pollutants, and made tradeoffs among these pollutants when prioritizing control strategies; and information gaps and research needs.
Strategies for Reducing the Impacts of Surface Transportation on Global Climate Change: A Synthesis of Policy Research and State and Local Mitigation Strategies, Cynthia Burbank, Parsons Brinckerhoff (March 2009). This report was conducted for NCHRP project 20-24. It provides detailed information on five GHG reduction areas (vehicles, fuels, VMT, operations, and construction maintenance). It also includes a scenario analysis for GHG reductions, detailed information on the transportation elements of state climate action plans, and an annotated literature review.
America's Climate Choices Reports, National Academies, National Resource Council (May 2011). This series of five reports emphasize a need for U.S. actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to begin adapting to climate change impacts. Advancing the Science of Climate Change recommends that a single federal entity or program be given the authority and resources to coordinate a national, multidisciplinary research effort with the goal of improving both understanding and responses to climate change. Limiting the Magnitude of Climate Change recommends that the U.S. establish a greenhouse gas emissions budget that sets a limit on total domestic emissions over a set period of time and provides a clear, directly measurable goal. Informing an Effective Response to Climate Change recommends that the government improve communication about climate change by establishing information and reporting systems, such as climate services and a greenhouse-gas accounting system. Adapting to the Impacts of Climate Change calls for a national adaptation strategy to support and coordinate decentralized efforts. The final report in the series, America’s Climate Choices, focuses on the elements of an effective national response to climate change.
Warming World: Impacts by Degree, National Academies (March 2011). This booklet summarizes the findings of a July 2010 report, Climate Stabilization Targets: Emissions, Concentrations, and Impacts over Decades to Millennia. The report quantifies the outcomes of different stabilization targets for greenhouse gas concentrations using analyses and information drawn from scientific literature. The report explores the relationships between increases in carbon dioxide and global warming, related climate changes, and resulting impacts, such as changes in streamflow, wildfires, extreme hot summers, and sea level rise.
Video: America's Climate Choices: Limiting the Magnitude of Future Climate Change, National Academies (2011). In this video, members of the America's Climate Choices Panel on Limiting the Magnitude of Climate Change explain their conclusion that the United States should establish an emissions budget as soon as possible to guide U.S. policy.
Webinar Presentation on Limiting the Magnitude of Future Climate Change (July 2010). This presentation from a July 28 webinar discusses the National Academies' report Limiting the Magnitude of Future Climate Change, part of the congressionally requested America's Climate Choices suite of studies. The report focuses on the role of the United States in the global effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and concludes that the United States should establish a "budget" that sets a limit on total domestic greenhouse emissions from 2010-2050. Meeting such a budget would require a major departure from business as usual in the way the nation produces and uses energy and it would require the nation to act now to aggressively deploy energy efficiencies and less carbon-intensive technologies and develop new ones.
Domestic Policies to Reduce the Near-Term Risks of Climate Change, Center for Climate and Energy Solutions (March 12, 2013). The report offers suggestions on how the Obama Administration could use executive actions to decrease emissions of short-lived climate change pollutants. Potential transportation related initiatives focus on actions to reduce black carbon emissions. According to the report, the Environmental Protection Agency should develop a program, such as a private-public partnership, to reduce black carbon emissions from diesel engines. It also calls on federal agencies to reduce black carbon emissions by retrofitting the “dirtiest diesel engines” in the federal fleet. Several other potential steps are outlined in the report, many of which focus on federal land use.
Federal Action on Climate Change and Clean Energy, Center for Climate and Energy Solutions (Feb. 13, 2013). This policy guide identifies steps the Administration or Congress can undertake to cut greenhouse gas emissions, further clean energy and energy efficiency technologies, and strengthen the climate-resiliency of communities and infrastructure. Transportation-related actions include calls to establish stricter emissions and fuel economy standards for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles and to offer additional support for programs designed to assist businesses, states, and communities better protect themselves from more frequent extreme weather events. The guide also calls on Congress to reward clean energy technology in future transportation bill reauthorizations.
Climate Change 101: Understanding and Responding to Global Climate Change, Pew Center on Global Climate Change (March 3, 2011). This newly updated series provides brief reports on climate change topics such as climate science; adaptation measures; and U.S Federal, State, and local action. The updated reports highlight issues including the significance of the global negotiations, local efforts to address climate change, and current predictions on global temperature changes. Individual reports can be accessed at the following links: Overview, Science and Impacts, Adaptation, Technology, Business, International, Federal, State, Local, and Cap and Trade.
Primer on Federal Surface Transportation Authorization and the Highway Trust Fund, and Saving Oil and Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions through U.S. Federal Transportation Policy, Pew Center on Global Climate Change (Feb. 15, 2011). These papers offer a guide to federal transportation reauthorization legislation and identify opportunities to save oil and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in new legislation as well as through existing legislative authority. The strategy focuses on five key elements: vehicles; fuels; vehicle miles traveled; system efficiency; and construction, maintenance, and other activities of transportation agency operations. The papers follow up on the Pew Center’s report, Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S. Transportation, which identifies reasonable actions that could deliver up to a 65 percent reduction in transportation emissions from current levels by 2050 across three fronts – technology, policy, and consumer behavior.
Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S. Transportation, Pew Center on Global Climate Change (Jan. 11, 2011). This report examines the potential to substantially reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the U.S. transportation sector through a combination of policy change, technology development, and public support. The report finds the potential to cut transportation GHG emissions cost-effectively by up to 65 percent below 2010 levels by 2050 through improvements to vehicle efficiency, shifting to less carbon intensive fuels, changing travel behavior, and operating more efficiently. The report also outlines three scenarios of varying intensity that would lead to transportation emissions reductions from 2010 levels of 17.2 percent, 40.1 percent, or 65.1 percent, respectively.
Summary: Cancún Climate Change Conference, Pew Center on Global Climate Change (December 2010). This document summarizes the proceedings at the Sixteenth Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and Sixth Session of the Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol held Nov. 29-Dec. 10, 2010, in Cancún, Mexico.
Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Timetables, Pew Center on Global Climate Change (November 2008). This brief describes issues relevant to the timetable for reducing U.S. emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) under a cap-and-trade program.
Policies to Reduce Emissions from the Transportation Sector, Pew Center on Global Climate Change (November 2008). This brief discusses public policy tools available to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transportation sector.
Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S. Transportation, Pew Center on Global Climate Change (May 2003). This study, prepared by scientists from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Massachusetts Institute of Technology on behalf of the Pew Center, provides an overview of options for reducing GHG emissions from all transportation modes (air, rail, marine, and roads).
Climate Change Mitigation Peer Exchanges Summary Report, Federal Highway Administration (Sept. 2012). This report summarizes a series of climate change mitigation peer exchanges held between June 2011 and April 2012 on the role of metropolitan planning organizations and state departments of transportation in climate change mitigation. Topics discussed included greenhouse gas analysis, incorporating greenhouse gas analysis in the planning process, and their climate change mitigation activities. The report provides an overview of key themes, lessons learned, examples of innovative practices, and resources from participating agencies.
Climate Change and Transportation: Summary of Key Information, Transportation Research Board Electronic Circular E-C164 (July 17, 2012). This publication from the TRB’s Special Task Force on Climate Change and Energy provides a concise summary of key climate change information related to transportation. Topics include a discussion of rising emissions, climate changes, risks to humans, adaptation efforts, and transportation sector-specific information on greenhouse gas reduction, price signals, vehicle miles traveled, planning, freight, and adaptation.
TRB Report Presents Policy Options for Lower Transportation Energy Use, GHG Emissions, Transportation Research Board (June 23, 2011). TRB Special Report 307 reviews policy options for achieving major reductions in transportation energy use and greenhouse gas emissions over the next half century by targeting cars and light trucks, medium and heavy trucks, and commercial airliners. The policy options examined include fuel taxes, vehicle efficiency standards, fuel standards, infrastructure investments, and coordinated transportation and land use planning. According to the committee that authored the report, significant reductions in petroleum use will require more than just tougher fuel economy standards, but a combination of measures that foster consumer and supplier interest in vehicle fuel economy, alternative fuels, and a more efficient transportation system.
Modal Primer on Greenhouse Gas and Energy Issues for the Transportation Industry, TRB Transportation Research Circular E-C143 (April 2010). This research circular is intended to provide transportation decision makers with an overview of the current state of the transportation industry from a greenhouse gas and energy standpoint.
Developing and Assessing Economic, Energy, and Climate Security and Investment Options for the US, Center for Climate Strategies (Nov. 15, 2012). This study finds that state and local government sustainable energy and transportation policies, combined with federal initiatives, have had a more significant effect on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions than the economic downturn or the availability of cheap natural gas. The study used data from the Energy Information Administration and other analyses to determine that renewable fuel programs and national car mileage standards account for 46 percent of the projected reduction of GHGs. The report also describes 20 new policies, such as rebates for plug-in hybrid electric and electric vehicles and expanded public transit, that, if adopted, would nearly close the gap and meet national GHG reduction goals.
U.S. Status on Climate Change Mitigation, Resources for the Future (Oct. 2012). This paper presents a forecast for U.S. greenhouse gas emissions in 2020, finding that the country is near to reaching a goal set by President Obama in 2009 to achieve a 17 percent reduction in emissions from 2005 levels by 2020. The report finds that the country is on course to achieve reductions of 16.3 percent from 2005 levels in 2020, despite a failure by Congress to pass comprehensive climate change legislation in 2010. According to the paper, three factors contribute to this projection: GHG regulations under the Clean Air Act, secular trends including changes in relative fuel prices and energy efficiency, and subnational efforts. The paper also finds that the country is expected to fail to meet its financing commitments under the Copenhagen Accord for 2020.
The Impact of Center City Economic and Cultural Vibrancy on Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Transportation, Mineta Transportation Institute (March 2012). This report analyses the effects of land-use and urban quality of life on transportation patterns. The report finds that more “vibrant” downtown areas are associated with lower greenhouse gas emissions from driving and increased public transit use. The report also includes policy recommendations for cities to reduce GHG emissions associated with transportation: rethinking land use regulations, continuing investments in reducing city-center crime, and increasing local public school quality.
Congestion in America, Securing America’s Future Energy (Jan. 24, 2012). This report by a nonprofit group seeking to reduce America’s dependence on oil finds that congestion is a significant contributor to fuel consumption in the United States. The report finds that 1.9 billion gallons of gas were wasted in congestion in 2010, and estimates fuel wasted in congestion will increase by 65 percent by 2030. The report identifies transportation policies to reverse the trend, including road traffic management, accident management, improved public transit and ridesharing, and long-term urban planning and development.
Meeting Transportation Goals to Reduce Greenhouse Gases in the National Capital Region, Monica Bansal and Erin Morrow (2011). This article discusses various scenarios for meeting aggressive climate change mitigation goals in the transportation sector of the National Capital Region. The study included a baseline inventory and forecast of carbon dioxide emissions, identified multiple mitigation strategies, and analyzed the costs and benefits of implementation. Findings indicate that the most significant impacts would require a full suite of actions addressing fuel efficiency, alternative fuels, and travel efficiency. The article is published in the TRB Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2252 Energy and Global Climate Change 2011.
International Investors Issue Statement and Report Calling for Policy Action on Climate Change, Institutional Investors Group on Climate Change (Oct. 19, 2011). Several international investor groups representing over $20 trillion in assets have issued a joint statement urging governments and policymakers to take urgent policy action to address climate change. The investor groups also announced the release of an accompanying report that describes “investment-grade” climate change and clean energy policy and includes case studies on the climate policies of six major emitters.
Research Cites Potential Benefits of Reductions in Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases (Aug. 3, 2011). A new study conducted by NOAA and published in the journal Nature finds that cuts in emissions of greenhouse gases other than carbon dioxide – such as methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone-depleting substances – could provide near-term climate benefits. According to the study, some of these chemicals have shorter lifetimes in the atmosphere than CO2, meaning that cuts in non-CO2 emissions could reduce their climate warming effect within decades rather than centuries, as with CO2. The study concludes that while reductions in non-CO2 greenhouse gases offers potential short-term benefits, sustainably reducing the warming influence of greenhouse gases will be possible only with steep cuts in CO2 emissions.
Report Urges Larger Role for Scientists, Economists in Tallying Carbon's Social Cost, Environmental Law Institute (July 12, 2011). This report discusses the calculation of the social costs of climate change when making determinations about the benefits of avoided greenhouse gas emissions. The report describes weaknesses in the choices made when performing cost-benefit analyses on federal regulations using the social cost of carbon on a dollar per ton basis. The report urges more transparency regarding the assumptions used in calculating the benefits of avoided GHG emissions that will impact the decisions of policymakers.
Technologies for Climate Change Mitigation: Transport Sectors, UNEP Risø Centre on Energy, Climate and Sustainable Development (March 2011). This guidebook discusses options for improving transportation of people and freight while at the same time reducing greenhouse gas emission. The guidebook analyses impacts in both developed and developing countries and discusses ways in which the development of transportation facilities can be sustainable. The guidebook covers various transportation modes including pedestrian, bicycles, motor vehicles, boats, and airplanes.
Fact Sheet: U.S. Climate Action in 2009–2010, World Resources Institute (Sept. 20, 2010). This fact sheet reviews notable steps taken by federal agencies, Congress, and the states to control greenhouse gas emissions, including stimulus funding, international finance commitments, regional cap-and-trade programs, and state energy policies. The fact sheet also identifies political and economic developments that could impact federal climate legislation and additional regulatory action to reduce emissions by federal agencies.
Climate and Transportation Solutions: Findings from the 2009 Asilomar Conference on Transportation and Energy Policy, Institute of Transportation Studies at the University of California, Davis (June 2010). This book, which focuses on innovative strategies for reducing GHG emissions from transportation, is adapted from presentations and discussions at the 2009 Asilomar Conference on Transportation and Energy Policy. The book addresses whether it is possible to reduce transport-related CO2 emissions by 50 percent to 80 percent by 2050, and how that might be accomplished. Thirteen chapters include discussion of the effects of energy use in transportation on global GHG emissions and suggest new policies to improve vehicle efficiency, reduce the carbon content of fuel, and reduce vehicle use.
Transportation Strategies to Mitigate Climate Change, ASCE Leadership and Management in Engineering, Tiffany Batac and Lewison Lem (July 2008).This article focuses on state climate action plans in the Western states, examining where they have anticipated receiving the most GHG reductions while also highlighting some of the more cost effective GHG reducing strategies. The purpose is to highlight some of those states that have been in the lead, and to provide guidance to other states that are in the process of, or starting to embark on the process of creating state climate action plans. Analyses were drawn from the state climate action plans of Arizona, New Mexico, Montana, and Colorado.
Policy Options for Reducing CO2 Emissions, Congressional Budget Office (February 2008).The Congressional Budget Office (CBO) conducts research and analysis on budget-related issues for the U.S. Congress, including the potential budgetary effects of pending legislation. At the request of the chairman of the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, the CBO recently prepared a report on policy options for reducing CO2 emissions.
Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Supply Curve for the United States for Transport Versus other Sectors, Nicholas Lutsey, Daniel Sperling (2008). This report constructs greenhouse gas mitigation supply curves of near-term technologies for all the major sectors of the U.S. economy. Finding indicate that motor vehicles and fuels are attractive candidates for reducing GHGs in the near and medium term. Transport technologies and fuels represent about half of the GHG mitigation options that have net-positive benefits, so-called "no regrets" strategies - and about 20 percent of the most cost-effective options to reduce GHGs to 10 percent below 1990 levels by 2030.
Policy Options for Reducing CO2 Emissions, Congressional Budget Office (February 2008). This report compares the incentive-based approaches to curb activities that produce CO2 emissions, such as tax on emissions, cap on the total annual level of emissions, and a modified cap-and-trade program. These approaches were examined based on three criteria: 1) efficiency considerations, 2) implementation considerations, and 3) international consistency considerations.
Reducing U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions: How Much at What Cost? McKinsey & Company (December 2007). McKinsey & Company, a business consulting firm, issued a report in December 2007 that comprehensively reviewed potential strategies for reducing GHG emissions in the U.S. This study was funded by several major corporations as well as a number of environmental groups. The study analyzed more than 250 options, comparing them in terms of their cost-effectiveness - that is, the cost per ton of reduction of GHG emissions. The central conclusion of the report was that the United States could reduce GHG emissions in 2030 by 3.0 to 4.5 gigatons of CO2e using tested approaches and high-potential emerging technologies. These reductions would involve pursuing a wide array of abatement options with marginal costs less than $50 per ton, with the average net cost to the economy being far lower if the nation can capture sizable gains from energy efficiency. Achieving these reductions at the lowest cost to the economy, however, will require strong, coordinated, economy-wide action that begins in the near future.
America's Bottom-up Climate Change Mitigation Policy, Nicholas Lutsey, Daniel Sperling, (November 2007), Elsevier Energy Policy 36, pp. 673 to 685. In this paper, Lutsey and Sperling inventory and analyze local, state, and regional policy actions in the US as to their potential effect on national emissions. See also http://www.ruraltransportation.org/uploads/nchrp20-24(59).pdf.
Assessing U.S. Climate Policy Options, Resources for the Future (November 2007). Resources for the Future (RFF) is an independent, non-partisan think tank, which focuses on energy, natural resources, and environmental issues. RFF has established the U.S. Climate Policy Forum, which conducts and disseminates research on climate topics. The RFF has compiled a series of policy papers on climate issues in its report, "Assessing U.S. Climate Policy Options." The papers in this report focus on options for cost-effectively reducing GHG emissions, and focuses in particular on a "pricing mechanism" as the central element of an economy-wide policy for reducing GHG emissions.
Policy Options for Reducing Oil Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the U.S. Transportation Sector, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University (July 2007). Researchers prepared a discussion paper in July 2007 analyzing potential strategies for reducing GHG emissions from the transportation sector. This paper provides an overview of policy options, weighing the pros and cons of each, and combines those options into "illustrative packages" but does not recommend any specific approach.
Greenhouse Gas Control Strategies a Review of "Before-and-After" Studies, Federal Highway Administration (November 1999). This paper summarizes the results of a literature search on U.S. efforts to reduce GHG emissions from on-highway vehicles and public transit modes.