Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory Methodologies for State Transportation Departments (NCHRP 25-25, Task 65), National Cooperative Highway Research Program (July 2011). This report provides GHG accounting procedures and recommended practices to help state DOTs prepare a GHG emission inventory of their operations as well as to increase consistency across state DOT inventories.
Assessing Mechanisms for Integrating Transportation-Related Greenhouse Gas Reduction Objections into Transportation Decisionmaking. ICF International, NCHRP Project 20-24(64) (January 2010). This NCHRP report objective was to provide a factual basis for judging the merits of alternative methods that state departments of transportation and metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs) can use for managing GHG emissions from transportation. The project was undertaken to help policy makers to understand (a) how these alternative approaches to GHG emissions would affect states and metropolitan areas, (b) what approaches may be most effective for evaluating mobile-source GHG emission-management strategies, and (c) what particular tools are available to support implementation of these alternative approaches.
Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Analysis Techniques for Transportation Projects, ICF International (May 2006). This report was prepared for NCHRP Project 25-25, Task 17, to help transportation practitioners understand the strengths, limitations, and applicability of available GHG techniques for transportation. The report identifies a total of 17 tools or methods that can be used to analyze the GHG implications of transportation projects. Existing tools are categorized into three groups: (1) transportation GHG calculation tools; (2) transportation/emissions strategy analysis tools; and (3) energy/economic forecasting tools.
Using MOVES for Estimating State and Local Inventories of On-Road Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Energy Consumption, Environmental Protection Agency (Nov. 29, 2012). This document provides guidance on how to use the Motor Vehicle Emissions Simulator model (MOVES) to estimate greenhouse gas emissions and/or energy consumption from on-road vehicles in a state or metropolitan area. The guidance describes approaches for developing an annual on-road GHG inventory in different types of areas and the implications of each of these approaches.
EPA Releases Updated Tool for Assessing Benefits of Clean Air Policies (Oct. 11, 2012). EPA has announced an update to its Co–Benefits Risk Assessment (COBRA) screening model. The tool is designed to help state and local governments estimate and map the air quality, human health, and economic benefits of clean energy policies and programs that reduce air pollution. Updates include a single emissions baseline for the year 2017, the addition of recent health incidence data, and new 2017 population projections.
Greenhouse Gas Equivalencies Calculator. EPA provides a web-based calculator that converts greenhouse gas emissions numbers into different types of equivalent units (e.g., annual operation of cars, power plants, etc.). The calculator may be used in communicating a GHG reduction strategy, reduction targets, or other initiatives.
Household Emissions Calculator. EPA provides a calculator to get a rough "ballpark" estimate of personal or family greenhouse gas emissions and explore the impact of taking various actions to reduce emissions. The calculator allows the user to calculate annual emissions, evaluate alternatives, and estimate savings in both dollars and GHG emissions. Transportation is one of the included activities.
COMMUTER Model (October 2005).This model analyzes the impacts of transportation control measures (TCMs) on vehicle miles traveled (VMT), criteria pollutant emissions, and CO2.
MOVES Model (December 2009). This modeling system estimates emissions for on-road and non-road sources for a broad range of pollutants and allow multiple scale analysis. This system is intended to replace MOBILE6 and NONROAD.
Fact Sheets on Calculating GHG Emissions from Transportation. This EPA webpage contains links to several "Emissions Facts" sheets, including information on "Metrics for Expressing Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Carbon Equivalents and Carbon Dioxide Equivalents," "Average Carbon Dioxide Emissions Resulting from Gasoline and Diesel Fuel," and "Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a Typical Passenger Vehicle." The site also includes links to technical reports on methane and nitrous oxide emissions factors for on-highway vehicles.
Potential Changes in Emissions Due To Improvements in Travel Efficiency - Supplemental Report: Analysis of Potential Co-Benefits, Environmental Protection Agency (November 2011). This report evaluates several co-benefits resulting from the implementation of the travel efficiency strategies for reducing criteria and greenhouse gas emissions at the national scale that were analyzed in a March 2011 primary report titled Potential Changes in Emissions Due to Improvements in Travel Efficiency – Final Report. The primary report analyzed strategies including travel demand management, land use policies, transit-related strategies, and parking and road pricing. The supplemental report evaluates co-benefits from implementation of the travel efficiency strategies or combinations of strategies (referred to as scenarios), such as a reduction in health impacts associated with air pollution, reduced traffic congestion, reduced user operating costs, improved energy security, and reduction in traffic accidents.
Analyzing Emission Reductions From Travel Efficiency Strategies: A Guide to The TEAM Approach (December 2011). This user guide is designed to help practitioners use EPA’s Travel Efficiency Assessment Method (TEAM) for assessing the potential of travel efficiency strategies – such as land use changes or transit improvements – for reducing criteria and greenhouse gas emissions. TEAM uses available regional travel model data, sketch model analysis, and Motor Vehicle Emissions Simulator (MOVES) emission factors to calculate the expected emission reductions from use of travel efficiency strategies. The user guide supports a preliminary evaluation of emission reductions for several travel efficiency strategies and combinations of strategies.
Energy and Emissions Reduction Policy Analysis Tool (EERPAT), Federal Highway Administration (Jan. 10, 2012). FHWA has released a tool designed to help state DOTs evaluate policy alternatives for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from transportation. EERPAT is a screening tool that allows state DOTs to analyze the effects of various greenhouse gas reduction policy scenarios on GHG emissions from the surface transportation sector, at a statewide level.
AERIS Assesses Tools and Models; Data, Calibration Still Needed, Research and Innovative Technology Administration (Oct. 5, 2011). The Applications for the Environment Real-time Information Synthesis (AERIS) program, which supports research to acquire and use real-time transportation data to facilitate “green” transportation choices, has issued an assessment of existing data and technology to use in modeling driver behavior, traffic patterns, and motor vehicle emissions. Existing tools and models are available but would require additional data and calibration tests against real-world experience. In addition, models selected by AERIS will be used in combinations that have not been tried before.
FHWA Updates Method for Calculating Vehicle Miles Traveled, Federal Highway Administration (Sept. 30, 2011). FHWA has announced an update to its methodology for calculating annual vehicles miles (VMT) traveled to reflect improvements over the last decade in the way states collect travel data. According to FHWA, the new approach employs “more consistent, complete data gathered directly from the states and ensures more accurate calculations for VMT by vehicle type.”
Applications of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for Transportation and Climate Change, Federal Highway Administration (Aug. 29, 2011). This report describes the current practice and application of GIS technologies for integrating climate change into the transportation decisionmaking process. The report synthesizes the findings from eight case studies that describe how select state, regional, and local agencies are developing and applying GIS tools to implement climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies.
A Framework for Considering Climate Change in Transportation and Land Use Scenario Planning: Final Report, John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center (July 2011). This final report documents a federal interagency pilot project to integrate climate change considerations into transportation and land use scenario planning on Cape Cod, Mass. The Interagency Transportation, Land Use, and Climate Change Cape Cod Pilot Project, which was sponsored by FHWA, the National Park Service, and the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, led to the development of a multi-agency transportation and land use development scenario for the region that focuses on reducing greenhouse gas emissions and addresses potential impacts from sea level rise. The report describes the scenario planning process, successes, and lessons learned from the pilot project and offers recommendations for other agencies to pursue a similar multi-agency approach to integrating climate change into transportation and land use planning.
Climate Change - Model Language in Transportation Plans, Federal Highway Administration (May 2010). This guidance document addresses how state departments of transportation and metropolitan planning organizations are addressing climate change considerations in their long-range transportation plans. The guidance provides examples of specific language from state and regional transportation plans illustrating how agencies have incorporated climate change into their plans. The guidance also offers suggestions on how state DOTs and MPOs might incorporate climate change into their Transportation Improvement Programs.
Emissions Analysis of Freight Transport Comparing Land-Side and Water-Side Short-Sea Routes: Development and Demonstration of a Freight Routing and Emissions Analysis Tool (FREAT), U.S. DOT Center for Climate Change and Environmental Forecasting (November 2007). This study includes a methodology and tools to effectively compare emissions from land-side and water-side freight transport alternatives. The research team will develop and demonstrate a model that analyzes total fuel-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) and other emissions associated with transporting freight along land-side and water-side routes. The project also evaluates tradeoffs among pollutants, costs, and travel time for moving freight between two points and will identify optimal modal combinations within a network of travel paths that lead to minimizing emissions, costs, and/or travel time.
Planning Program Funds to Support Integration of Transportation, Land Use, and Climate Change, FHWA (November 2008). This is an FHWA guidance memo on eligibility for using Federal planning funds for climate change planning.
Integrating Climate Change into the Transportation Planning Process, FHWA (July 2008). The objective of this study is to advance the practice and application of transportation planning among state, regional, and local transportation planning agencies to successfully meet growing concerns about the relationship between transportation and climate change. This report explores the possibilities for integrating climate change considerations into long range transportation planning as state DOTs and MPOs. The report reviews the experience of a number of DOTs and MPOs that are already incorporating climate change into their transportation planning processes and identifies their successes as well as challenges faced by these agencies.
Assessment of GHG Models for the Surface Transportation Sector, FHWA (November 1999). This paper is a survey of several models used in the U.S. to estimate the impact of GHG control strategies in the surface transport sector.
NOAA, DOE Partner to Improve Climate Modeling Research, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (Feb. 13, 2013). NOAA and the Department of Energy’s Office of Science have announced an agreement to coordinate their climate modeling research programs in an effort to improve planning for climate change. The agreement is intended to produce more detailed and complex climate models that allow for climate projections on a finer scale, over longer time frames, and with more certainty to better inform decision makers.
Climate Leadership in Parks (CLIP) Tool, National Park Service. This tool was developed in cooperation with EPA as part of the Climate Friendly Parks Program to provide national parks with resources to address climate change. CLIP includes a tool allowing users to create an inventory of greenhouse gas emissions from activities including park vehicles, electricity use, and wastewater treatment. CLIP also includes a planning module allowing parks to set emissions targets and compare different actions to reach those goals. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service also has announced the development of a tool based on CLIP that calculates GHG emissions at national wildlife refuges. The Climate Leadership in Refuges (CLIR) tool includes an additional feature that calculates visitor transportation emissions.
Energy Department Releases Web Tool to Reduce Fleet Petroleum Use, GHG Emissions, U.S. Department of Energy (Nov. 28, 2012). DOE’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed an online tool designed to help fleet managers choose from a range of methods for reducing their fuel consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, and operating costs. The Petroleum Reduction Planning Tool allows fleet managers to evaluate the benefits associated with five alternative fuels and several efficiency measures, including idle reduction and fuel economy improvements. The new tool also allows fleet managers to evaluate different fleet improvement options and create a comprehensive plan using several fuel saving methods. The new tool is part of NREL’s redesigned Alternative Fuels Data Center website.
GSA Carbon Footprint Tool Updated, U.S. General Services Administration (Aug. 27, 2012). GSA has redesigned this online tool to assist federal agencies with compiling their annual comprehensive greenhouse gas inventories and to track progress towards achieving their GHG reduction goals. The redesign includes improvements to site navigation, data sharing, quality assurance, and support for mobile devices.
Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) Model Updated, Argonne National Laboratory (Oct. 14, 2011). This fuel-cycle model, first released in 1996, is designed to evaluate energy and emission impacts of advanced vehicle technologies and new transportation fuel combinations on a full fuel-cycle/vehicle-cycle basis. The latest version (GREET1_2011) includes major updates developed with support from the Department of Energy’s Biomass, Vehicle Technologies, Fuel Cell Technologies, and Geothermal Technologies programs.
An Economic and Life Cycle Analysis of Regional Land Use and Transportation Plans, Mineta Transportation Institute (June 2012). This study is the third in a series that applies a new spatial economic model to examine questions regarding the economic effects, the distribution of those effects, and their implications for implementation of California’s global warming legislation (AB 32) and anti-sprawl legislation (SB 375). The first study looked at the requirement under AB 32 that the economic and equity effects of the land use and transportation plans (Sustainable Community Strategies, or SCSs) under SB 375 used to achieve GHG targets be evaluated prior to implementation. The second study examined the potential economic and equity consequences to local governments that choose not to comply with the SCS in a region. The current study looks at how a local government’s decision to not comply with the SCS could change the geographic distribution of economic benefits and under what circumstances this change may be an incentive or disincentive for SCS implementation.
Colorado Initiative Seeks to Reduce Energy Use, Greenhouse Emissions from Transport Sector, State Smart Transportation Initiative (Dec. 2, 2011). The Colorado Department of Transportation launched a collaborative effort in May 2011 with federal and state agencies, metropolitan planning organizations, and rural planners to develop and implement strategies for increasing energy efficiency and reducing greenhouse gas emissions in transportation. The Colorado Energy Smart Transportation Initiative has adopted 10 “energy smart transportation” strategies to further those goals, including planning and project selection processes that take into account energy use, measures to accelerate the non-petroleum fuel supply infrastructure, fleet conversion to non-petroleum vehicles, and others. A summary of the initiative describes activities completed through November 2011.
ODOT Releases the First Two Primers for the Oregon Sustainable Transportation Initiative, Oregon Department of Transportation (Aug. 2011). These two primers concern the Oregon Sustainable Transportation Initiative (OSTI) and are part of a set of five primers designed to explain the details of the OSTI. The first primer, #1 STS Primer, is an overview of the other primers, whereas #2 STS Primer describes the Statewide Transportation Strategy, a long term plan to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from transportation.
Emission Factor (EMFAC) model, California Air Resources Board (November 2006).This model produces emission rates and inventories for criteria air pollutants and CO2. It is the approved emissions model used in the State of California for SIP development, conformity analysis, and other analyses that are typically conducted using MOBILE6 in other states.
Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Modeling, & Reduction Opportunities, Oregon DOT. This is a powerpoint presentation on a statewide model, "GreenSTEP," being developed by Oregon DOT to estimate transportation GHG.
Greenhouse Gas Analysis Tools, Washington State Department of Commerce. (December 2009). This is a summary and assessment of GHG analysis tools. It reviews existing modeling tools and programs, identifies those most appropriate for use in Washington State, and identifies the strengths and weaknesses of the tools.
Computer Model Simulates GHG Emissions at Building, Street Level, Arizona State University (Oct. 9, 2012). The Arizona State University School of Life Sciences has announced a new computer simulation model that is capable of estimating greenhouse gas emissions at the level of individual highways and buildings. The model, called Hestia, builds on a previous model that ASU developed by using data from tax records to estimate heating and cooling usage. For highways, the model also uses hour-by-hour data on traffic flow. The output is in high resolution maps showing carbon dioxide emission sources.
Developing a Framework for a Toolkit for Carbon Footprint that Integrates Transit (CFIT), National Center for Transit Research at the University of South Florida (November 2010). This report addresses the development of a framework for calculating greenhouse gas emissions from proposed transportation projects and recommendations on how to incorporate the framework into five transportation planning processes used in Florida. The report also includes a review of GHG emissions calculation tools and their applicability to each planning process, case studies from four leading states, and a scenario of a public bus transit improvement project that was used in calculating an estimate of generated GHG emissions.
Environmental Life-cycle Assessment of Passenger Transportation in the United States: A Detailed Methodology for Energy, Greenhouse Gas, and Criteria Pollutant Inventories of Automobiles, Buses, Light Rail, Heavy Rail, and Air, Mikhail Chester and Arpad Horvath, University of California, Berkeley (March 2008). This project used detailed life-cycle assessment models to estimate energy, GHG, and criteria pollutants from passenger transportation modes in the United States, for the entire life cycle of vehicles, infrastructure, and fuels. It found that, compared to GHG from operations, life-cycle GHG are 1.6X for autos, 2.6X for light rail, 2.1X for heavy rail, 1.4X for buses, and 1.3X for air.
VMT Spreadsheet, University of Vermont Transportation Research Center. This is a GIS-based travel demand model/carbon calculator. It estimates the average weekday VMT from development projects or land use plans, based on ITE or user defined daily trip generation data.
Integrating Greenhouse Gas Into Transportation Planning, Transportation Research Board (December 2012). This web-based application provides a technical framework to assist practitioners with integrating greenhouse gas considerations into transportation planning. The framework, which was developed under the Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP2), provides information on the models, data sources, and methods that can be used to conduct GHG emissions analysis. The framework is part of the online decision support system, Transportation for Communities: Advancing Projects through Partnerships (TCAPP). Related products issued under the SHRP2 project include a report, Incorporating Greenhouse Gas Emissions into the Collaborative Decision-Making Process, which identifies how and where GHG emissions fit within the TCAPP framework. Also available is a Practitioner's Guide to Incorporating Greenhouse Gas Emissions into the Collaborative Decision-Making Process. The guide provides information on how GHG emissions can be considered in different decision contexts and includes an appendix with detailed technical information for GHG analysis.
Incorporating Climate Change Considerations into the Transportation Planning Process, Transportation Research Board (Michael D. Meyer, Nicholas Schmidt) (January 2010). Transportation emissions are a significant contributor to climate change. Transportation plans and related documentation of metropolitan planning organizations and international cities were reviewed to ascertain whether climate change considerations are being incorporated into the transportation planning process. The review revealed that climate change considerations have not yet been included in a majority of cases in the transportation planning process, especially with regard to adapting transportation systems to the potential effects of climate change.
The Social Cost of Carbon in U.S. Regulatory Impact Analyses: An Introduction and Critique, Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences (Sept. 17, 2012). This study finds that the federal government is significantly underestimating the costs to society of carbon dioxide pollution because its analytical model does not take into account the economic effects of climate change to future generations. According to the study, the $21 per ton “social cost of carbon” set by an Obama administration panel in 2009 is too conservative. The study provides a higher estimate of between $55 per ton and $266 per ton, which could have a significant effect on policies that encourage renewable energy.
Transport Emissions Evaluation Models for Projects (TEEMP), Institute for Transportation and Development Policy (April 10, 2012). This suite of free, spreadsheet-based modeling tools can be used to evaluate the greenhouse gas emissions and other impacts of different types of transportation projects. Initially developed for evaluating emissions impacts of the Asian Development Bank’s transport projects, the tool suite has been modified to serve as a standard method to evaluate global environmental facility projects. The updated tools also incorporate a new standard for bus rapid transit projects and can be applied for evaluating the impacts of various transport measures at a project level.
Quantifying and Forecasting Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Urban Passenger Transportation, Transportation Association of Canada (January 2011). This report summarizes the proceedings of a March 25, 2010, workshop in Ottawa, Ontario, on the state of practice of quantification and forecasting of greenhouse gas emissions in Canada and elsewhere. The conference also assessed opportunities and challenges for Canadian jurisdictions and practitioners and identified practitioner needs that could be addressed by government, nongovernmental organizations, academics, and private-sector businesses.
ITS America, IBM, and Spencer Trask and Partners Announce iCarpool.com as the Winner of the ITS Congestion Challenge, ITS America (September 2009). This announcement includes information on a variety of "smart" technologies for reducing congestion and greenhouse gas emissions, including iCarpool.com; Avego Ltd.; BroadBit Inc.; FuelClinic; The Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge; iCone Products, LLC; IntellioneTechnologies Corp.; Precyse Technologies Inc.; and Skymeter Corp.
Drivers Cut Back their Speeding, Tailgating and Hard Braking When Their Gas Mileage is Monitored, A City Experiment Finds, Los Angeles Times (February 2009). This news article reports on a 7-month pilot program in ecodriving in Denver, involving 400 drivers whose fuel economy improved 10 percent, with comparable reductions in GHG emissions.
New Data for a New Era: A Summary of SMARTAQ Findings: Linking Land Use, Transportation, Air Quality, and Health in the Atlanta Region (January 2007). SMARTRAQ, a collaboration between Georgia Tech and the Georgia Department of Transportation. This report summarizes the results of one of the largest, most comprehensive planning studies yet undertaken for a large metropolitan area. Dubbed SMARTRAQ (Strategies for Metro Atlanta's Transportation and Air Quality), it is an ambitious attempt to understand how the layout of our neighborhoods, cities and region affects the amount of driving, walking or riding on transit that we do, and how those travel patterns in turn affect our personal and environmental health. Beyond that, the study probes the neighborhood preferences of metro residents to gain a sense of the market for various alternatives. The study was sponsored by federal and state transportation, environmental and health agencies, with assistance from a local foundation and non-profit organizations.
The GHG Protocol for Project Accounting, World Resources Institute and World Business Council for Sustainable Development (December 2005). This report provides specific principles, concepts, and methods for quantifying and reporting GHG reductions from climate change mitigation projects. It was produced using a collaborative process involving businesses, NGOs, governments, academics, and others.
Mobile Phone App Helps Commuters Track CO2 Emissions, the Volvo Group. Volvo has developed the Commute Greener! mobile phone and Internet application to help commuters calculate their personal CO2 emissions. The application allows users to enter the mode of transport they use commuting to and from work and then calculate how much CO2 is emitted when they use different modes of transport, such as the car, transit, carpool, or bicycle. Commute Greener! also allows users to set a target for reducing their personal CO2 footprint, to track their progress in meeting the CO2 reduction targets, and to share their experience in an online community. The application is available for purchase by individuals on the Apple iTunes website and is also available for purchase by cities, public transportation agencies, and other large organizations through the Volvo Group.
The Greenhouse Gas Protocol for the U.S. Public Sector: Interpreting the Corporate Standard for U.S. Public Sector Organizations, World Resources Institute (October 2010). This report provides tailored guidance to interpret the GHG Protocol Corporate Accounting and Reporting Standard specifically for the public sector context. The standard, released by the Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative in 2001 and revised in 2004, is a step-by-step guide for quantifying and reporting emissions of the six greenhouse gases covered by the Kyoto Protocol.